What is smell and what does the sense of smell do for us?
Hazard warning | Memory prompt | Chemical signalling | Antidepressant | Flavour detector |
Appetite control | Mate selector (HLA detector)
also: Smell and the pill
Body odour has a number of functions (see "Smell and mate selection"), one of which is to tell us when to wash. We notice a build up of our body odour, some more quickly than others (!) and we find the smell unpleasant - is this another potential hazard? Well, we need to remove dead skin and grime to prevent a build up of fungi and bacteria that could lead to disease and infection. The bacteria are one of the factors in the production of bad smell.
Memory promptBut, is our olfactory system doing more than just giving us warnings? Yes, of course. Smell is the backdrop to our every waking moment, it is part of our consciousness and, even in sleep (see Smell and dreams) the sense of smell keeps working. It also serves a recognition function. We all have our own unique smell (some more pleasant than others! - but that's another story, see Smelly you on the "Smell - What & How" page) and can recognise and be recognised by our smell. Smell evokes memory and, to a greater extent than the other senses, evokes the mood and emotion associated with the memory. The brain regions dealing with smell (piriform cortex) and memory (hippocampus) are close together and there is a two way highway of connections between them (see interesting work by Matsunaga's lab on smell memory, the immune system and health). The amygdala is also part of this collection of brain centres, called the limbic system, and sets the the appropriate emotional tone in response to memories.
Chemical signallingDogs can distinguish between the smell of T-shirts worn by non-identical twins (they couldn't tell the difference between identical twins - presumably because they smell identical!). Children can distinguish between the smell of their siblings and other children of the same age. Babies recognise their own mothers' smell and mothers recognise their own babies' smell. Emotion can be communicated by smell. Dogs and horses are very sensitive to the smell of fear in humans and recently it has been demonstrated that humans can detect fear. Dr Mujica Parodi used fMRI to show that "fear sweat" (from skydivers) activates the amygdala in other people whereas gym sweat does not. Research has shown that a panel of women can discriminate between armpit swabs taken from people watching "happy" and "sad" films. Men were less good at this. Mum's learn the smell of their own babies and babies learn the smell of their own mothers. The emotions of others, for example fear, contentment, sexuality, may therefore be experienced and communicated by smell. Memory is often associated with smell. Smell and memory are intimately linked - although this phenomenon is not well understood.
We certainly underestimate the importance of smell to our well-being - ask an anosmic (someone who has lost some or all of their sense of smell). There are suggestions that smell can influence mood, memory, emotions, mate choice,
the immune system and the endocrine system (hormones). In fact the sense of smell could be said to be at the mind-body interface working in the background to modulate our response to the outside world.
AntidepressantA proportion of those who lose their sense of smell become depressed. So you could say that smell acts as an antidepressant. This works both ways. More detail on smell and depression can be found in my page on "Smell and Mood" and I look into new, non-drug treatments for depression in "Therapeutic use of smell".
Smell and mate selectionI have always believed that the prime function of smell is mate selection and that this has driven (human) evolution. We like the smell of some people and don't like the smell of others. Our sense of smell is subconsciously identifying the immune system of others. It is our MHC genes (called HLA in humans), part of of our immune system, that confer our own unique body odour and we like the smell of those with very different HLA genes and do NOT like the smell of those with similar HLA genes. The attraction to the smell of those with different HLA alleles encourages outbreeding, increases disease resistance and prevents incest. It is not so much that we actively sniif out our perfect partner more that we are unlikely to end up with someone whose smell we can't stand. The more scientific details about this are given below.
HLA and mate selection - non random pairingOne of the major functions of our sense of smell is as an immune system detector. A specific set of genes determines our immune system (Human Leucocyte Antigen, or HLA, genes). We are all different (except identical twins) and this huge range of differences (called “polymorphism”) results from our innate ability to choose partners with different HLA genes to our own. This phenomenon is called “disassortative mating preference” (Penn and Potts, 1999) where unlike genotypes are attracted to one another. Evidence for this has been found in mice (Yamazaki et al., 1976; 1978; Beauchamp et al., 1988), humans (Ober et al., 1997; Jacob et al., 2002; Chaix, Cao and Donnelly, 2008), birds (Freeman-Gallant et al., 2003), reptiles (Olsson et al., 2003) and fish (Landry et al., 2001). This mating preference acts to increase disease resistance (Hughes and Nei, 1992) and prevents kin mating (incest avoidance; Weisfeld et al., J. Exp. Child Psychol. 85:279-295, 2003). Mate choice appears to be mediated by smell and this immune-dependent odour is referred to as “odourtype”. There are four hypotheses as to how our immune system can influence odourtype (reviewed by Penn, 2002): (1) HLA molecules may provide the odours themselves, (2) HLA molecules may act as carriers for volatile odorants (the carrier hypothesis), (3) metabolites of HLA-bound peptides may provide the source of volatile odours (the peptide hypothesis), and (4) HLA genes may influence the odour indirectly by shaping an individual’s personal microflora composition (the microflora hypothesis), i.e. the bacteria responsible for your smelly armpits.
This odour-based mate selection encourages disassortative pairing and there are penalties if it is subverted (it is thought that oral contraceptive use undermines this process). Couples sharing HLA alleles have a higher rate of spontaneous abortion (Ober, 1995), and significantly lower success at achieving pregnancy following artificial reproductive therapy (reviewed in Ober and van der Ven, 1997) and some studies have suggested that females reject HLA-similar sperm or zygotes (Rulicke et al., 1998). Consanguineous married couples in China have been found to have low fertility and it has been suggested that they fail to initiate pregnancy due to the increased incidence of HLA-sharing (Liu et al., 2005) a phenomenon that has been long reported in the West (Thomas et al, 1985). Ober et al. (1985) concluded that fertility is reduced in couples sharing HLA-DR alleles. HLA-dissimilar mate preference may influence the psychology of sexual attraction. As HLA sharing increased, women’s sexual responsiveness to their partners decreased, their number of extrapair sexual partners increased, and their attraction to men other than their primary partners increased, particularly during the most fertile period of their menstrual cycles (ovulation) (Garver-Apgar et al., 2006).
From the above it can be suggested that it is important to make the appropriate, genetically-compatible choice when selecting a partner. Clearly this is not an active, conscious process in humans. More likely, it exerts a negative influence, viz. couples who find the smell of their partner continuously unpleasant would be less likely to stay together. To confound this biological selection mechanism, use of the oral contraceptive interferes with womens’ ability to select HLA-compatible partners, reversing their preference, and they have been found to prefer the smell of HLA-similar men (Wedekind et al., 1995; Craig Roberts et al., 2008). Is this the end of human evolution? Actually, not a silly question and no-one has looked into it. They should.
Smell and the pillA study by Salvatore Caruso found women taking a birth control pill were less sensitive to scents, which may negatively affect their sex drives. Researchers tested the ability of 60 women not taking the pill to detect six smells at various points in their menstrual cycles. Sense of smell was shown to be most sensitive around ovulation, a time when women are most fertile. The subjects were then put on birth control pills and their sense of smell was re-tested. After three months of pill use, the increased sensitivity to smell usually seen during ovulation was absent. This contradicts earlier work carried out by Doty and colleagues who demonstrated fluctuations in smell sensitivity during the menstrual cycle that were not affected by contraceptive pill use.
Changes in olfactory perception were seen in a study by Hummel and colleagues. They tested sensitivity to phenylethyl alcohol, androstenone and nicotine at various phases of the menstrual cycle. They found that it was only the pleasantness of androstenone that changed and sensitivity (to all three compounds) was unaffected. Naturally cycling women in the periovulatory phase were significantly more sensitive to androstenone, androsterone, and musk than women taking oral contraceptives. These findings give support to odour-specific hormonal modulation of olfaction. Renfro and Hoffman tested the sensitivity of women to 6 odours - lemon, peppermint, rose, musk, androstenone and androsterone. They found that naturally cycling women were significantly more sensitive around ovulation to androstenone, androsterone, and musk than women taking oral contraceptives.
Another study has uncovered other relationships between the sense of smell and pill use. Research by Thornhill and colleagues, showed that women taking oral contraceptives had no significant preference for the smell of males with symmetrical features vs. asymmetrical features. Symmetry in features is a measure of attractiveness and genetic fitness. Women not taking the pill preferred the smell of males with symmetrical features during their most fertile time. Pill use can also decrease sex drive in some women. However, it should be said that sex drive and choosing a mate are very complex issues that involve many physical and psychological variables.
So it seems that oral contraceptive use does affect smell and may alter sensitivity to factors that have bearing on partner choice, sex and relationships.